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java.awt
public class: GridBagLayout [javadoc | source]
java.lang.Object
   java.awt.GridBagLayout

All Implemented Interfaces:
    LayoutManager2, java$io$Serializable

The GridBagLayout class is a flexible layout manager that aligns components vertically, horizontally or along their baseline without requiring that the components be of the same size. Each GridBagLayout object maintains a dynamic, rectangular grid of cells, with each component occupying one or more cells, called its display area.

Each component managed by a GridBagLayout is associated with an instance of GridBagConstraints . The constraints object specifies where a component's display area should be located on the grid and how the component should be positioned within its display area. In addition to its constraints object, the GridBagLayout also considers each component's minimum and preferred sizes in order to determine a component's size.

The overall orientation of the grid depends on the container's ComponentOrientation property. For horizontal left-to-right orientations, grid coordinate (0,0) is in the upper left corner of the container with x increasing to the right and y increasing downward. For horizontal right-to-left orientations, grid coordinate (0,0) is in the upper right corner of the container with x increasing to the left and y increasing downward.

To use a grid bag layout effectively, you must customize one or more of the GridBagConstraints objects that are associated with its components. You customize a GridBagConstraints object by setting one or more of its instance variables:

GridBagConstraints#gridx , GridBagConstraints#gridy
Specifies the cell containing the leading corner of the component's display area, where the cell at the origin of the grid has address gridx = 0, gridy = 0. For horizontal left-to-right layout, a component's leading corner is its upper left. For horizontal right-to-left layout, a component's leading corner is its upper right. Use GridBagConstraints.RELATIVE (the default value) to specify that the component be placed immediately following (along the x axis for gridx or the y axis for gridy) the component that was added to the container just before this component was added.
GridBagConstraints#gridwidth , GridBagConstraints#gridheight
Specifies the number of cells in a row (for gridwidth) or column (for gridheight) in the component's display area. The default value is 1. Use GridBagConstraints.REMAINDER to specify that the component's display area will be from gridx to the last cell in the row (for gridwidth) or from gridy to the last cell in the column (for gridheight). Use GridBagConstraints.RELATIVE to specify that the component's display area will be from gridx to the next to the last cell in its row (for gridwidth or from gridy to the next to the last cell in its column (for gridheight).
GridBagConstraints#fill
Used when the component's display area is larger than the component's requested size to determine whether (and how) to resize the component. Possible values are GridBagConstraints.NONE (the default), GridBagConstraints.HORIZONTAL (make the component wide enough to fill its display area horizontally, but don't change its height), GridBagConstraints.VERTICAL (make the component tall enough to fill its display area vertically, but don't change its width), and GridBagConstraints.BOTH (make the component fill its display area entirely).
GridBagConstraints#ipadx , GridBagConstraints#ipady
Specifies the component's internal padding within the layout, how much to add to the minimum size of the component. The width of the component will be at least its minimum width plus ipadx pixels. Similarly, the height of the component will be at least the minimum height plus ipady pixels.
GridBagConstraints#insets
Specifies the component's external padding, the minimum amount of space between the component and the edges of its display area.
GridBagConstraints#anchor
Specifies where the component should be positioned in its display area. There are three kinds of possible values: absolute, orientation-relative, and baseline-relative Orientation relative values are interpreted relative to the container's ComponentOrientation property while absolute values are not. Baseline relative values are calculated relative to the baseline. Valid values are:

Absolute Values

Orientation Relative Values

Baseline Relative Values

  • GridBagConstraints.NORTH
  • GridBagConstraints.SOUTH
  • GridBagConstraints.WEST
  • GridBagConstraints.EAST
  • GridBagConstraints.NORTHWEST
  • GridBagConstraints.NORTHEAST
  • GridBagConstraints.SOUTHWEST
  • GridBagConstraints.SOUTHEAST
  • GridBagConstraints.CENTER (the default)
  • GridBagConstraints.PAGE_START
  • GridBagConstraints.PAGE_END
  • GridBagConstraints.LINE_START
  • GridBagConstraints.LINE_END
  • GridBagConstraints.FIRST_LINE_START
  • GridBagConstraints.FIRST_LINE_END
  • GridBagConstraints.LAST_LINE_START
  • GridBagConstraints.LAST_LINE_END
  • GridBagConstraints.BASELINE
  • GridBagConstraints.BASELINE_LEADING
  • GridBagConstraints.BASELINE_TRAILING
  • GridBagConstraints.ABOVE_BASELINE
  • GridBagConstraints.ABOVE_BASELINE_LEADING
  • GridBagConstraints.ABOVE_BASELINE_TRAILING
  • GridBagConstraints.BELOW_BASELINE
  • GridBagConstraints.BELOW_BASELINE_LEADING
  • GridBagConstraints.BELOW_BASELINE_TRAILING
  • GridBagConstraints#weightx , GridBagConstraints#weighty
    Used to determine how to distribute space, which is important for specifying resizing behavior. Unless you specify a weight for at least one component in a row (weightx) and column (weighty), all the components clump together in the center of their container. This is because when the weight is zero (the default), the GridBagLayout object puts any extra space between its grid of cells and the edges of the container.

    Each row may have a baseline; the baseline is determined by the components in that row that have a valid baseline and are aligned along the baseline (the component's anchor value is one of {@code BASELINE}, {@code BASELINE_LEADING} or {@code BASELINE_TRAILING}). If none of the components in the row has a valid baseline, the row does not have a baseline.

    If a component spans rows it is aligned either to the baseline of the start row (if the baseline-resize behavior is {@code CONSTANT_ASCENT}) or the end row (if the baseline-resize behavior is {@code CONSTANT_DESCENT}). The row that the component is aligned to is called the prevailing row.

    The following figure shows a baseline layout and includes a component that spans rows:

    The following text describes this graphic (Figure 1).
    This layout consists of three components: Because the second button and the panel share the same prevailing row, they are both aligned along their baseline.

    Components positioned using one of the baseline-relative values resize differently than when positioned using an absolute or orientation-relative value. How components change is dictated by how the baseline of the prevailing row changes. The baseline is anchored to the bottom of the display area if any components with the same prevailing row have a baseline-resize behavior of CONSTANT_DESCENT, otherwise the baseline is anchored to the top of the display area. The following rules dictate the resize behavior:

    If you position a component along the baseline, but the component does not have a valid baseline, it will be vertically centered in its space. Similarly if you have positioned a component relative to the baseline and none of the components in the row have a valid baseline the component is vertically centered.

    The following figures show ten components (all buttons) managed by a grid bag layout. Figure 2 shows the layout for a horizontal, left-to-right container and Figure 3 shows the layout for a horizontal, right-to-left container.

    The preceeding text describes this graphic (Figure 1). The preceeding text describes this graphic (Figure 2).
    Figure 2: Horizontal, Left-to-Right Figure 3: Horizontal, Right-to-Left

    Each of the ten components has the fill field of its associated GridBagConstraints object set to GridBagConstraints.BOTH. In addition, the components have the following non-default constraints:

    Here is the code that implements the example shown above:


    import java.awt.*;
    import java.util.*;
    import java.applet.Applet;
    
    public class GridBagEx1 extends Applet {
    
        protected void makebutton(String name,
                                  GridBagLayout gridbag,
                                  GridBagConstraints c) {
            Button button = new Button(name);
            gridbag.setConstraints(button, c);
            add(button);
        }
    
        public void init() {
            GridBagLayout gridbag = new GridBagLayout();
            GridBagConstraints c = new GridBagConstraints();
    
            setFont(new Font("SansSerif", Font.PLAIN, 14));
            setLayout(gridbag);
    
            c.fill = GridBagConstraints.BOTH;
            c.weightx = 1.0;
            makebutton("Button1", gridbag, c);
            makebutton("Button2", gridbag, c);
            makebutton("Button3", gridbag, c);
    
            c.gridwidth = GridBagConstraints.REMAINDER; //end row
            makebutton("Button4", gridbag, c);
    
            c.weightx = 0.0;                //reset to the default
            makebutton("Button5", gridbag, c); //another row
    
            c.gridwidth = GridBagConstraints.RELATIVE; //next-to-last in row
            makebutton("Button6", gridbag, c);
    
            c.gridwidth = GridBagConstraints.REMAINDER; //end row
            makebutton("Button7", gridbag, c);
    
            c.gridwidth = 1;                //reset to the default
            c.gridheight = 2;
            c.weighty = 1.0;
            makebutton("Button8", gridbag, c);
    
            c.weighty = 0.0;                //reset to the default
            c.gridwidth = GridBagConstraints.REMAINDER; //end row
            c.gridheight = 1;               //reset to the default
            makebutton("Button9", gridbag, c);
            makebutton("Button10", gridbag, c);
    
            setSize(300, 100);
        }
    
        public static void main(String args[]) {
            Frame f = new Frame("GridBag Layout Example");
            GridBagEx1 ex1 = new GridBagEx1();
    
            ex1.init();
    
            f.add("Center", ex1);
            f.pack();
            f.setSize(f.getPreferredSize());
            f.show();
        }
    }
    

    Field Summary
    static final  int EMPIRICMULTIPLIER     
    protected static final  int MAXGRIDSIZE    This field is no longer used to reserve arrays and keeped for backward compatibility. Previously, this was the maximum number of grid positions (both horizontal and vertical) that could be laid out by the grid bag layout. Current implementation doesn't impose any limits on the size of a grid. 
    protected static final  int MINSIZE    The smallest grid that can be laid out by the grid bag layout. 
    protected static final  int PREFERREDSIZE    The preferred grid size that can be laid out by the grid bag layout. 
    protected  Hashtable<Component, GridBagConstraints> comptable    This hashtable maintains the association between a component and its gridbag constraints. The Keys in comptable are the components and the values are the instances of GridBagConstraints. 
    protected  GridBagConstraints defaultConstraints    This field holds a gridbag constraints instance containing the default values, so if a component does not have gridbag constraints associated with it, then the component will be assigned a copy of the defaultConstraints. 
    protected  GridBagLayoutInfo layoutInfo    This field holds the layout information for the gridbag. The information in this field is based on the most recent validation of the gridbag. If layoutInfo is null this indicates that there are no components in the gridbag or if there are components, they have not yet been validated. 
    public  int[] columnWidths    This field holds the overrides to the column minimum width. If this field is non-null the values are applied to the gridbag after all of the minimum columns widths have been calculated. If columnWidths has more elements than the number of columns, columns are added to the gridbag to match the number of elements in columnWidth. 
    public  int[] rowHeights    This field holds the overrides to the row minimum heights. If this field is non-null the values are applied to the gridbag after all of the minimum row heights have been calculated. If rowHeights has more elements than the number of rows, rowa are added to the gridbag to match the number of elements in rowHeights. 
    public  double[] columnWeights    This field holds the overrides to the column weights. If this field is non-null the values are applied to the gridbag after all of the columns weights have been calculated. If columnWeights[i] > weight for column i, then column i is assigned the weight in columnWeights[i]. If columnWeights has more elements than the number of columns, the excess elements are ignored - they do not cause more columns to be created.
      serial:
     
    public  double[] rowWeights    This field holds the overrides to the row weights. If this field is non-null the values are applied to the gridbag after all of the rows weights have been calculated. If rowWeights[i] > weight for row i, then row i is assigned the weight in rowWeights[i]. If rowWeights has more elements than the number of rows, the excess elements are ignored - they do not cause more rows to be created.
      serial:
     
    transient  boolean rightToLeft     
    static final  long serialVersionUID     
    Constructor:
     public GridBagLayout() 
    Method from java.awt.GridBagLayout Summary:
    AdjustForGravity,   ArrangeGrid,   GetLayoutInfo,   GetMinSize,   addLayoutComponent,   addLayoutComponent,   adjustForGravity,   arrangeGrid,   getConstraints,   getLayoutAlignmentX,   getLayoutAlignmentY,   getLayoutDimensions,   getLayoutInfo,   getLayoutOrigin,   getLayoutWeights,   getMinSize,   invalidateLayout,   layoutContainer,   location,   lookupConstraints,   maximumLayoutSize,   minimumLayoutSize,   preferredLayoutSize,   removeLayoutComponent,   setConstraints,   toString
    Methods from java.lang.Object:
    clone,   equals,   finalize,   getClass,   hashCode,   notify,   notifyAll,   toString,   wait,   wait,   wait
    Method from java.awt.GridBagLayout Detail:
     protected  void AdjustForGravity(GridBagConstraints constraints,
        Rectangle r) 
      This method is obsolete and supplied for backwards compatability only; new code should call java.awt.Rectangle) adjustForGravity instead. This method is the same as adjustForGravity; refer to adjustForGravity for details on parameters.
     protected  void ArrangeGrid(Container parent) 
      This method is obsolete and supplied for backwards compatability only; new code should call arrangeGrid instead. This method is the same as arrangeGrid; refer to arrangeGrid for details on the parameter.
     protected GridBagLayoutInfo GetLayoutInfo(Container parent,
        int sizeflag) 
      This method is obsolete and supplied for backwards compatability only; new code should call getLayoutInfo instead. This method is the same as getLayoutInfo; refer to getLayoutInfo for details on parameters and return value.
     protected Dimension GetMinSize(Container parent,
        GridBagLayoutInfo info) 
      This method is obsolete and supplied for backwards compatability only; new code should call getMinSize instead. This method is the same as getMinSize; refer to getMinSize for details on parameters and return value.
     public  void addLayoutComponent(String name,
        Component comp) 
      Has no effect, since this layout manager does not use a per-component string.
     public  void addLayoutComponent(Component comp,
        Object constraints) 
      Adds the specified component to the layout, using the specified constraints object. Note that constraints are mutable and are, therefore, cloned when cached.
     protected  void adjustForGravity(GridBagConstraints constraints,
        Rectangle r) 
      Adjusts the x, y, width, and height fields to the correct values depending on the constraint geometry and pads. This method should only be used internally by GridBagLayout.
     protected  void arrangeGrid(Container parent) 
      Lays out the grid. This method should only be used internally by GridBagLayout.
     public GridBagConstraints getConstraints(Component comp) 
      Gets the constraints for the specified component. A copy of the actual GridBagConstraints object is returned.
     public float getLayoutAlignmentX(Container parent) 
      Returns the alignment along the x axis. This specifies how the component would like to be aligned relative to other components. The value should be a number between 0 and 1 where 0 represents alignment along the origin, 1 is aligned the furthest away from the origin, 0.5 is centered, etc.

     public float getLayoutAlignmentY(Container parent) 
      Returns the alignment along the y axis. This specifies how the component would like to be aligned relative to other components. The value should be a number between 0 and 1 where 0 represents alignment along the origin, 1 is aligned the furthest away from the origin, 0.5 is centered, etc.

     public int[][] getLayoutDimensions() 
      Determines column widths and row heights for the layout grid.

      Most applications do not call this method directly.

     protected GridBagLayoutInfo getLayoutInfo(Container parent,
        int sizeflag) 
      Fills in an instance of GridBagLayoutInfo for the current set of managed children. This requires three passes through the set of children:
      1. Figure out the dimensions of the layout grid.
      2. Determine which cells the components occupy.
      3. Distribute the weights and min sizes amoung the rows/columns.
      This also caches the minsizes for all the children when they are first encountered (so subsequent loops don't need to ask again).

      This method should only be used internally by GridBagLayout.

     public Point getLayoutOrigin() 
      Determines the origin of the layout area, in the graphics coordinate space of the target container. This value represents the pixel coordinates of the top-left corner of the layout area regardless of the ComponentOrientation value of the container. This is distinct from the grid origin given by the cell coordinates (0,0). Most applications do not call this method directly.
     public double[][] getLayoutWeights() 
      Determines the weights of the layout grid's columns and rows. Weights are used to calculate how much a given column or row stretches beyond its preferred size, if the layout has extra room to fill.

      Most applications do not call this method directly.

     protected Dimension getMinSize(Container parent,
        GridBagLayoutInfo info) 
      Figures out the minimum size of the master based on the information from getLayoutInfo. This method should only be used internally by GridBagLayout.
     public  void invalidateLayout(Container target) 
      Invalidates the layout, indicating that if the layout manager has cached information it should be discarded.
     public  void layoutContainer(Container parent) 
      Lays out the specified container using this grid bag layout. This method reshapes components in the specified container in order to satisfy the contraints of this GridBagLayout object.

      Most applications do not call this method directly.

     public Point location(int x,
        int y) 
      Determines which cell in the layout grid contains the point specified by (x, y). Each cell is identified by its column index (ranging from 0 to the number of columns minus 1) and its row index (ranging from 0 to the number of rows minus 1).

      If the (x, y) point lies outside the grid, the following rules are used. The column index is returned as zero if x lies to the left of the layout for a left-to-right container or to the right of the layout for a right-to-left container. The column index is returned as the number of columns if x lies to the right of the layout in a left-to-right container or to the left in a right-to-left container. The row index is returned as zero if y lies above the layout, and as the number of rows if y lies below the layout. The orientation of a container is determined by its ComponentOrientation property.

     protected GridBagConstraints lookupConstraints(Component comp) 
      Retrieves the constraints for the specified component. The return value is not a copy, but is the actual GridBagConstraints object used by the layout mechanism.

      If comp is not in the GridBagLayout, a set of default GridBagConstraints are returned. A comp value of null is invalid and returns null.

     public Dimension maximumLayoutSize(Container target) 
      Returns the maximum dimensions for this layout given the components in the specified target container.
     public Dimension minimumLayoutSize(Container parent) 
      Determines the minimum size of the parent container using this grid bag layout.

      Most applications do not call this method directly.

     public Dimension preferredLayoutSize(Container parent) 
      Determines the preferred size of the parent container using this grid bag layout.

      Most applications do not call this method directly.

     public  void removeLayoutComponent(Component comp) 
      Removes the specified component from this layout.

      Most applications do not call this method directly.

     public  void setConstraints(Component comp,
        GridBagConstraints constraints) 
      Sets the constraints for the specified component in this layout.
     public String toString() 
      Returns a string representation of this grid bag layout's values.