java.lang.Object java.io.InputStream java.io.ObjectInputStream
ObjectOutputStream and ObjectInputStream can provide an application with persistent storage for graphs of objects when used with a FileOutputStream and FileInputStream respectively. ObjectInputStream is used to recover those objects previously serialized. Other uses include passing objects between hosts using a socket stream or for marshaling and unmarshaling arguments and parameters in a remote communication system.
ObjectInputStream ensures that the types of all objects in the graph created from the stream match the classes present in the Java Virtual Machine. Classes are loaded as required using the standard mechanisms.
Only objects that support the java.io.Serializable or java.io.Externalizable interface can be read from streams.
readObject is used to read an object from the
stream. Java's safe casting should be used to get the desired type. In
Java, strings and arrays are objects and are treated as objects during
serialization. When read they need to be cast to the expected type.
Primitive data types can be read from the stream using the appropriate method on DataInput.
The default deserialization mechanism for objects restores the contents of each field to the value and type it had when it was written. Fields declared as transient or static are ignored by the deserialization process. References to other objects cause those objects to be read from the stream as necessary. Graphs of objects are restored correctly using a reference sharing mechanism. New objects are always allocated when deserializing, which prevents existing objects from being overwritten.
Reading an object is analogous to running the constructors of a new object. Memory is allocated for the object and initialized to zero (NULL). No-arg constructors are invoked for the non-serializable classes and then the fields of the serializable classes are restored from the stream starting with the serializable class closest to java.lang.object and finishing with the object's most specific class.
For example to read from a stream as written by the example in
FileInputStream fis = new FileInputStream("t.tmp"); ObjectInputStream ois = new ObjectInputStream(fis); int i = ois.readInt(); String today = (String) ois.readObject(); Date date = (Date) ois.readObject(); ois.close();
Classes control how they are serialized by implementing either the java.io.Serializable or java.io.Externalizable interfaces.
Implementing the Serializable interface allows object serialization to save and restore the entire state of the object and it allows classes to evolve between the time the stream is written and the time it is read. It automatically traverses references between objects, saving and restoring entire graphs.
Serializable classes that require special handling during the serialization and deserialization process should implement the following methods:
private void writeObject(java.io.ObjectOutputStream stream) throws IOException; private void readObject(java.io.ObjectInputStream stream) throws IOException, ClassNotFoundException; private void readObjectNoData() throws ObjectStreamException;
The readObject method is responsible for reading and restoring the state of the object for its particular class using data written to the stream by the corresponding writeObject method. The method does not need to concern itself with the state belonging to its superclasses or subclasses. State is restored by reading data from the ObjectInputStream for the individual fields and making assignments to the appropriate fields of the object. Reading primitive data types is supported by DataInput.
Any attempt to read object data which exceeds the boundaries of the custom data written by the corresponding writeObject method will cause an OptionalDataException to be thrown with an eof field value of true. Non-object reads which exceed the end of the allotted data will reflect the end of data in the same way that they would indicate the end of the stream: bytewise reads will return -1 as the byte read or number of bytes read, and primitive reads will throw EOFExceptions. If there is no corresponding writeObject method, then the end of default serialized data marks the end of the allotted data.
Primitive and object read calls issued from within a readExternal method
behave in the same manner--if the stream is already positioned at the end of
data written by the corresponding writeExternal method, object reads will
throw OptionalDataExceptions with eof set to true, bytewise reads will
return -1, and primitive reads will throw EOFExceptions. Note that this
behavior does not hold for streams written with the old
ObjectStreamConstants.PROTOCOL_VERSION_1 protocol, in which the
end of data written by writeExternal methods is not demarcated, and hence
cannot be detected.
The readObjectNoData method is responsible for initializing the state of the object for its particular class in the event that the serialization stream does not list the given class as a superclass of the object being deserialized. This may occur in cases where the receiving party uses a different version of the deserialized instance's class than the sending party, and the receiver's version extends classes that are not extended by the sender's version. This may also occur if the serialization stream has been tampered; hence, readObjectNoData is useful for initializing deserialized objects properly despite a "hostile" or incomplete source stream.
Serialization does not read or assign values to the fields of any object that does not implement the java.io.Serializable interface. Subclasses of Objects that are not serializable can be serializable. In this case the non-serializable class must have a no-arg constructor to allow its fields to be initialized. In this case it is the responsibility of the subclass to save and restore the state of the non-serializable class. It is frequently the case that the fields of that class are accessible (public, package, or protected) or that there are get and set methods that can be used to restore the state.
Any exception that occurs while deserializing an object will be caught by the ObjectInputStream and abort the reading process.
Implementing the Externalizable interface allows the object to assume complete control over the contents and format of the object's serialized form. The methods of the Externalizable interface, writeExternal and readExternal, are called to save and restore the objects state. When implemented by a class they can write and read their own state using all of the methods of ObjectOutput and ObjectInput. It is the responsibility of the objects to handle any versioning that occurs.
Enum constants are deserialized differently than ordinary serializable or
externalizable objects. The serialized form of an enum constant consists
solely of its name; field values of the constant are not transmitted. To
deserialize an enum constant, ObjectInputStream reads the constant name from
the stream; the deserialized constant is then obtained by calling the static
Enum.valueOf(Class, String) with the enum constant's
base type and the received constant name as arguments. Like other
serializable or externalizable objects, enum constants can function as the
targets of back references appearing subsequently in the serialization
stream. The process by which enum constants are deserialized cannot be
customized: any class-specific readObject, readObjectNoData, and readResolve
methods defined by enum types are ignored during deserialization.
Similarly, any serialPersistentFields or serialVersionUID field declarations
are also ignored--all enum types have a fixed serialVersionUID of 0L.
|Nested Class Summary:|
|abstract public static class||ObjectInputStream.GetField||Provide access to the persistent fields read from the input stream.|
If there is a security manager installed, this method first calls the
public ObjectInputStream(InputStream in) throws IOException
If a security manager is installed, this constructor will check for the "enableSubclassImplementation" SerializablePermission when invoked directly or indirectly by the constructor of a subclass which overrides the ObjectInputStream.readFields or ObjectInputStream.readUnshared methods.
|Method from java.io.ObjectInputStream Summary:|
|available, close, defaultReadObject, enableResolveObject, read, read, readBoolean, readByte, readChar, readClassDescriptor, readDouble, readFields, readFloat, readFully, readFully, readInt, readLine, readLong, readObject, readObjectOverride, readShort, readStreamHeader, readTypeString, readUTF, readUnshared, readUnsignedByte, readUnsignedShort, registerValidation, resolveClass, resolveObject, resolveProxyClass, skipBytes|
|Methods from java.io.InputStream:|
|available, close, mark, markSupported, read, read, read, reset, skip|
|Methods from java.lang.Object:|
|clone, equals, finalize, getClass, hashCode, notify, notifyAll, toString, wait, wait, wait|
|Method from java.io.ObjectInputStream Detail:|
public int available() throws IOException
public void close() throws IOException
public void defaultReadObject() throws IOException, ClassNotFoundException
protected boolean enableResolveObject(boolean enable) throws SecurityException
If enable is true, and there is a security manager installed,
this method first calls the security manager's
public int read() throws IOException
public int read(byte buf, int off, int len) throws IOException
public boolean readBoolean() throws IOException
public byte readByte() throws IOException
public char readChar() throws IOException
protected ObjectStreamClass readClassDescriptor() throws IOException, ClassNotFoundException
public double readDouble() throws IOException
public GetField readFields() throws IOException, ClassNotFoundException
public float readFloat() throws IOException
public void readFully(byte buf) throws IOException
public void readFully(byte buf, int off, int len) throws IOException
public int readInt() throws IOException
public String readLine() throws IOExceptionDeprecated!
public long readLong() throws IOException
public final Object readObject() throws IOException, ClassNotFoundException
The root object is completely restored when all of its fields and the objects it references are completely restored. At this point the object validation callbacks are executed in order based on their registered priorities. The callbacks are registered by objects (in the readObject special methods) as they are individually restored.
Exceptions are thrown for problems with the InputStream and for classes that should not be deserialized. All exceptions are fatal to the InputStream and leave it in an indeterminate state; it is up to the caller to ignore or recover the stream state.
protected Object readObjectOverride() throws IOException, ClassNotFoundException
public short readShort() throws IOException
protected void readStreamHeader() throws IOException, StreamCorruptedException
String readTypeString() throws IOException
public String readUTF() throws IOException
public Object readUnshared() throws IOException, ClassNotFoundException
ObjectInputStream subclasses which override this method can only be constructed in security contexts possessing the "enableSubclassImplementation" SerializablePermission; any attempt to instantiate such a subclass without this permission will cause a SecurityException to be thrown.
public int readUnsignedByte() throws IOException
public int readUnsignedShort() throws IOException
public void registerValidation(ObjectInputValidation obj, int prio) throws NotActiveException, InvalidObjectException
protected Class<?> resolveClass(ObjectStreamClass desc) throws IOException, ClassNotFoundException
The corresponding method in
The default implementation of this method in
Class.forName(desc.getName(), false, loader)where
protected Object resolveObject(Object obj) throws IOException
This method is called after an object has been read but before it is returned from readObject. The default resolveObject method just returns the same object.
When a subclass is replacing objects it must insure that the substituted object is compatible with every field where the reference will be stored. Objects whose type is not a subclass of the type of the field or array element abort the serialization by raising an exception and the object is not be stored.
This method is called only once when each object is first encountered. All subsequent references to the object will be redirected to the new object.
protected Class<?> resolveProxyClass(String interfaces) throws IOException, ClassNotFoundException
This method is called exactly once for each unique proxy class descriptor in the stream.
The corresponding method in
The default implementation of this method in
Class.forName(i, false, loader)where
public int skipBytes(int len) throws IOException