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java.lang
public class: Object [javadoc | source]
java.lang.Object
Class {@code Object} is the root of the class hierarchy. Every class has {@code Object} as a superclass. All objects, including arrays, implement the methods of this class.
Method from java.lang.Object Summary:
clone,   equals,   finalize,   getClass,   hashCode,   notify,   notifyAll,   toString,   wait,   wait,   wait
Method from java.lang.Object Detail:
 protected native Object clone() throws CloneNotSupportedException
    Creates and returns a copy of this object. The precise meaning of "copy" may depend on the class of the object. The general intent is that, for any object {@code x}, the expression:
    x.clone() != x
    will be true, and that the expression:
    x.clone().getClass() == x.getClass()
    will be {@code true}, but these are not absolute requirements. While it is typically the case that:
    x.clone().equals(x)
    will be {@code true}, this is not an absolute requirement.

    By convention, the returned object should be obtained by calling {@code super.clone}. If a class and all of its superclasses (except {@code Object}) obey this convention, it will be the case that {@code x.clone().getClass() == x.getClass()}.

    By convention, the object returned by this method should be independent of this object (which is being cloned). To achieve this independence, it may be necessary to modify one or more fields of the object returned by {@code super.clone} before returning it. Typically, this means copying any mutable objects that comprise the internal "deep structure" of the object being cloned and replacing the references to these objects with references to the copies. If a class contains only primitive fields or references to immutable objects, then it is usually the case that no fields in the object returned by {@code super.clone} need to be modified.

    The method {@code clone} for class {@code Object} performs a specific cloning operation. First, if the class of this object does not implement the interface {@code Cloneable}, then a {@code CloneNotSupportedException} is thrown. Note that all arrays are considered to implement the interface {@code Cloneable} and that the return type of the {@code clone} method of an array type {@code T[]} is {@code T[]} where T is any reference or primitive type. Otherwise, this method creates a new instance of the class of this object and initializes all its fields with exactly the contents of the corresponding fields of this object, as if by assignment; the contents of the fields are not themselves cloned. Thus, this method performs a "shallow copy" of this object, not a "deep copy" operation.

    The class {@code Object} does not itself implement the interface {@code Cloneable}, so calling the {@code clone} method on an object whose class is {@code Object} will result in throwing an exception at run time.

 public boolean equals(Object obj) 
    Indicates whether some other object is "equal to" this one.

    The {@code equals} method implements an equivalence relation on non-null object references:

    • It is reflexive: for any non-null reference value {@code x}, {@code x.equals(x)} should return {@code true}.
    • It is symmetric: for any non-null reference values {@code x} and {@code y}, {@code x.equals(y)} should return {@code true} if and only if {@code y.equals(x)} returns {@code true}.
    • It is transitive: for any non-null reference values {@code x}, {@code y}, and {@code z}, if {@code x.equals(y)} returns {@code true} and {@code y.equals(z)} returns {@code true}, then {@code x.equals(z)} should return {@code true}.
    • It is consistent: for any non-null reference values {@code x} and {@code y}, multiple invocations of {@code x.equals(y)} consistently return {@code true} or consistently return {@code false}, provided no information used in {@code equals} comparisons on the objects is modified.
    • For any non-null reference value {@code x}, {@code x.equals(null)} should return {@code false}.

    The {@code equals} method for class {@code Object} implements the most discriminating possible equivalence relation on objects; that is, for any non-null reference values {@code x} and {@code y}, this method returns {@code true} if and only if {@code x} and {@code y} refer to the same object ({@code x == y} has the value {@code true}).

    Note that it is generally necessary to override the {@code hashCode} method whenever this method is overridden, so as to maintain the general contract for the {@code hashCode} method, which states that equal objects must have equal hash codes.

 protected  void finalize() throws Throwable 
    Called by the garbage collector on an object when garbage collection determines that there are no more references to the object. A subclass overrides the {@code finalize} method to dispose of system resources or to perform other cleanup.

    The general contract of {@code finalize} is that it is invoked if and when the JavaTM virtual machine has determined that there is no longer any means by which this object can be accessed by any thread that has not yet died, except as a result of an action taken by the finalization of some other object or class which is ready to be finalized. The {@code finalize} method may take any action, including making this object available again to other threads; the usual purpose of {@code finalize}, however, is to perform cleanup actions before the object is irrevocably discarded. For example, the finalize method for an object that represents an input/output connection might perform explicit I/O transactions to break the connection before the object is permanently discarded.

    The {@code finalize} method of class {@code Object} performs no special action; it simply returns normally. Subclasses of {@code Object} may override this definition.

    The Java programming language does not guarantee which thread will invoke the {@code finalize} method for any given object. It is guaranteed, however, that the thread that invokes finalize will not be holding any user-visible synchronization locks when finalize is invoked. If an uncaught exception is thrown by the finalize method, the exception is ignored and finalization of that object terminates.

    After the {@code finalize} method has been invoked for an object, no further action is taken until the Java virtual machine has again determined that there is no longer any means by which this object can be accessed by any thread that has not yet died, including possible actions by other objects or classes which are ready to be finalized, at which point the object may be discarded.

    The {@code finalize} method is never invoked more than once by a Java virtual machine for any given object.

    Any exception thrown by the {@code finalize} method causes the finalization of this object to be halted, but is otherwise ignored.

 public final native Class<?> getClass()
    Returns the runtime class of this {@code Object}. The returned {@code Class} object is the object that is locked by {@code static synchronized} methods of the represented class.

    The actual result type is {@code Class} where {@code |X|} is the erasure of the static type of the expression on which {@code getClass} is called. For example, no cast is required in this code fragment:

    {@code Number n = 0; }
    {@code Class c = n.getClass(); }

 public native int hashCode()
    Returns a hash code value for the object. This method is supported for the benefit of hash tables such as those provided by java.util.HashMap .

    The general contract of {@code hashCode} is:

    • Whenever it is invoked on the same object more than once during an execution of a Java application, the {@code hashCode} method must consistently return the same integer, provided no information used in {@code equals} comparisons on the object is modified. This integer need not remain consistent from one execution of an application to another execution of the same application.
    • If two objects are equal according to the {@code equals(Object)} method, then calling the {@code hashCode} method on each of the two objects must produce the same integer result.
    • It is not required that if two objects are unequal according to the java.lang.Object#equals(java.lang.Object) method, then calling the {@code hashCode} method on each of the two objects must produce distinct integer results. However, the programmer should be aware that producing distinct integer results for unequal objects may improve the performance of hash tables.

    As much as is reasonably practical, the hashCode method defined by class {@code Object} does return distinct integers for distinct objects. (This is typically implemented by converting the internal address of the object into an integer, but this implementation technique is not required by the JavaTM programming language.)

 public final native  void notify()
    Wakes up a single thread that is waiting on this object's monitor. If any threads are waiting on this object, one of them is chosen to be awakened. The choice is arbitrary and occurs at the discretion of the implementation. A thread waits on an object's monitor by calling one of the {@code wait} methods.

    The awakened thread will not be able to proceed until the current thread relinquishes the lock on this object. The awakened thread will compete in the usual manner with any other threads that might be actively competing to synchronize on this object; for example, the awakened thread enjoys no reliable privilege or disadvantage in being the next thread to lock this object.

    This method should only be called by a thread that is the owner of this object's monitor. A thread becomes the owner of the object's monitor in one of three ways:

    • By executing a synchronized instance method of that object.
    • By executing the body of a {@code synchronized} statement that synchronizes on the object.
    • For objects of type {@code Class,} by executing a synchronized static method of that class.

    Only one thread at a time can own an object's monitor.

 public final native  void notifyAll()
    Wakes up all threads that are waiting on this object's monitor. A thread waits on an object's monitor by calling one of the {@code wait} methods.

    The awakened threads will not be able to proceed until the current thread relinquishes the lock on this object. The awakened threads will compete in the usual manner with any other threads that might be actively competing to synchronize on this object; for example, the awakened threads enjoy no reliable privilege or disadvantage in being the next thread to lock this object.

    This method should only be called by a thread that is the owner of this object's monitor. See the {@code notify} method for a description of the ways in which a thread can become the owner of a monitor.

 public String toString() 
    Returns a string representation of the object. In general, the {@code toString} method returns a string that "textually represents" this object. The result should be a concise but informative representation that is easy for a person to read. It is recommended that all subclasses override this method.

    The {@code toString} method for class {@code Object} returns a string consisting of the name of the class of which the object is an instance, the at-sign character `{@code @}', and the unsigned hexadecimal representation of the hash code of the object. In other words, this method returns a string equal to the value of:

    getClass().getName() + '@' + Integer.toHexString(hashCode())
    
 public final  void wait() throws InterruptedException 
    Causes the current thread to wait until another thread invokes the java.lang.Object#notify() method or the java.lang.Object#notifyAll() method for this object. In other words, this method behaves exactly as if it simply performs the call {@code wait(0)}.

    The current thread must own this object's monitor. The thread releases ownership of this monitor and waits until another thread notifies threads waiting on this object's monitor to wake up either through a call to the {@code notify} method or the {@code notifyAll} method. The thread then waits until it can re-obtain ownership of the monitor and resumes execution.

    As in the one argument version, interrupts and spurious wakeups are possible, and this method should always be used in a loop:

        synchronized (obj) {
            while (<condition does not hold>)
                obj.wait();
            ... // Perform action appropriate to condition
        }
    
    This method should only be called by a thread that is the owner of this object's monitor. See the {@code notify} method for a description of the ways in which a thread can become the owner of a monitor.
 public final native  void wait(long timeout) throws InterruptedException
    Causes the current thread to wait until either another thread invokes the java.lang.Object#notify() method or the java.lang.Object#notifyAll() method for this object, or a specified amount of time has elapsed.

    The current thread must own this object's monitor.

    This method causes the current thread (call it T) to place itself in the wait set for this object and then to relinquish any and all synchronization claims on this object. Thread T becomes disabled for thread scheduling purposes and lies dormant until one of four things happens:

    • Some other thread invokes the {@code notify} method for this object and thread T happens to be arbitrarily chosen as the thread to be awakened.
    • Some other thread invokes the {@code notifyAll} method for this object.
    • Some other thread {@linkplain Thread#interrupt() interrupts} thread T.
    • The specified amount of real time has elapsed, more or less. If {@code timeout} is zero, however, then real time is not taken into consideration and the thread simply waits until notified.
    The thread T is then removed from the wait set for this object and re-enabled for thread scheduling. It then competes in the usual manner with other threads for the right to synchronize on the object; once it has gained control of the object, all its synchronization claims on the object are restored to the status quo ante - that is, to the situation as of the time that the {@code wait} method was invoked. Thread T then returns from the invocation of the {@code wait} method. Thus, on return from the {@code wait} method, the synchronization state of the object and of thread {@code T} is exactly as it was when the {@code wait} method was invoked.

    A thread can also wake up without being notified, interrupted, or timing out, a so-called spurious wakeup. While this will rarely occur in practice, applications must guard against it by testing for the condition that should have caused the thread to be awakened, and continuing to wait if the condition is not satisfied. In other words, waits should always occur in loops, like this one:

        synchronized (obj) {
            while (<condition does not hold>)
                obj.wait(timeout);
            ... // Perform action appropriate to condition
        }
    
    (For more information on this topic, see Section 3.2.3 in Doug Lea's "Concurrent Programming in Java (Second Edition)" (Addison-Wesley, 2000), or Item 50 in Joshua Bloch's "Effective Java Programming Language Guide" (Addison-Wesley, 2001).

    If the current thread is {@linkplain java.lang.Thread#interrupt() interrupted} by any thread before or while it is waiting, then an {@code InterruptedException} is thrown. This exception is not thrown until the lock status of this object has been restored as described above.

    Note that the {@code wait} method, as it places the current thread into the wait set for this object, unlocks only this object; any other objects on which the current thread may be synchronized remain locked while the thread waits.

    This method should only be called by a thread that is the owner of this object's monitor. See the {@code notify} method for a description of the ways in which a thread can become the owner of a monitor.

 public final  void wait(long timeout,
    int nanos) throws InterruptedException 
    Causes the current thread to wait until another thread invokes the java.lang.Object#notify() method or the java.lang.Object#notifyAll() method for this object, or some other thread interrupts the current thread, or a certain amount of real time has elapsed.

    This method is similar to the {@code wait} method of one argument, but it allows finer control over the amount of time to wait for a notification before giving up. The amount of real time, measured in nanoseconds, is given by:

    1000000*timeout+nanos

    In all other respects, this method does the same thing as the method #wait(long) of one argument. In particular, {@code wait(0, 0)} means the same thing as {@code wait(0)}.

    The current thread must own this object's monitor. The thread releases ownership of this monitor and waits until either of the following two conditions has occurred:

    • Another thread notifies threads waiting on this object's monitor to wake up either through a call to the {@code notify} method or the {@code notifyAll} method.
    • The timeout period, specified by {@code timeout} milliseconds plus {@code nanos} nanoseconds arguments, has elapsed.

    The thread then waits until it can re-obtain ownership of the monitor and resumes execution.

    As in the one argument version, interrupts and spurious wakeups are possible, and this method should always be used in a loop:

        synchronized (obj) {
            while (<condition does not hold>)
                obj.wait(timeout, nanos);
            ... // Perform action appropriate to condition
        }
    
    This method should only be called by a thread that is the owner of this object's monitor. See the {@code notify} method for a description of the ways in which a thread can become the owner of a monitor.