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java.util
public class: GregorianCalendar [javadoc | source]
java.lang.Object
   java.util.Calendar
      java.util.GregorianCalendar

All Implemented Interfaces:
    Cloneable, Comparable, java$io$Serializable

GregorianCalendar is a concrete subclass of Calendar and provides the standard calendar system used by most of the world.

GregorianCalendar is a hybrid calendar that supports both the Julian and Gregorian calendar systems with the support of a single discontinuity, which corresponds by default to the Gregorian date when the Gregorian calendar was instituted (October 15, 1582 in some countries, later in others). The cutover date may be changed by the caller by calling setGregorianChange() .

Historically, in those countries which adopted the Gregorian calendar first, October 4, 1582 (Julian) was thus followed by October 15, 1582 (Gregorian). This calendar models this correctly. Before the Gregorian cutover, GregorianCalendar implements the Julian calendar. The only difference between the Gregorian and the Julian calendar is the leap year rule. The Julian calendar specifies leap years every four years, whereas the Gregorian calendar omits century years which are not divisible by 400.

GregorianCalendar implements proleptic Gregorian and Julian calendars. That is, dates are computed by extrapolating the current rules indefinitely far backward and forward in time. As a result, GregorianCalendar may be used for all years to generate meaningful and consistent results. However, dates obtained using GregorianCalendar are historically accurate only from March 1, 4 AD onward, when modern Julian calendar rules were adopted. Before this date, leap year rules were applied irregularly, and before 45 BC the Julian calendar did not even exist.

Prior to the institution of the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Day was March 25. To avoid confusion, this calendar always uses January 1. A manual adjustment may be made if desired for dates that are prior to the Gregorian changeover and which fall between January 1 and March 24.

Week Of Year and Week Year

Values calculated for the WEEK_OF_YEAR field range from 1 to 53. The first week of a calendar year is the earliest seven day period starting on getFirstDayOfWeek() that contains at least getMinimalDaysInFirstWeek() days from that year. It thus depends on the values of {@code getMinimalDaysInFirstWeek()}, {@code getFirstDayOfWeek()}, and the day of the week of January 1. Weeks between week 1 of one year and week 1 of the following year (exclusive) are numbered sequentially from 2 to 52 or 53 (except for year(s) involved in the Julian-Gregorian transition).

The {@code getFirstDayOfWeek()} and {@code getMinimalDaysInFirstWeek()} values are initialized using locale-dependent resources when constructing a {@code GregorianCalendar}. The week determination is compatible with the ISO 8601 standard when {@code getFirstDayOfWeek()} is {@code MONDAY} and {@code getMinimalDaysInFirstWeek()} is 4, which values are used in locales where the standard is preferred. These values can explicitly be set by calling setFirstDayOfWeek() and setMinimalDaysInFirstWeek() .

A week year is in sync with a {@code WEEK_OF_YEAR} cycle. All weeks between the first and last weeks (inclusive) have the same week year value. Therefore, the first and last days of a week year may have different calendar year values.

For example, January 1, 1998 is a Thursday. If {@code getFirstDayOfWeek()} is {@code MONDAY} and {@code getMinimalDaysInFirstWeek()} is 4 (ISO 8601 standard compatible setting), then week 1 of 1998 starts on December 29, 1997, and ends on January 4, 1998. The week year is 1998 for the last three days of calendar year 1997. If, however, {@code getFirstDayOfWeek()} is {@code SUNDAY}, then week 1 of 1998 starts on January 4, 1998, and ends on January 10, 1998; the first three days of 1998 then are part of week 53 of 1997 and their week year is 1997.

Week Of Month

Values calculated for the WEEK_OF_MONTH field range from 0 to 6. Week 1 of a month (the days with WEEK_OF_MONTH = 1) is the earliest set of at least getMinimalDaysInFirstWeek() contiguous days in that month, ending on the day before getFirstDayOfWeek(). Unlike week 1 of a year, week 1 of a month may be shorter than 7 days, need not start on getFirstDayOfWeek(), and will not include days of the previous month. Days of a month before week 1 have a WEEK_OF_MONTH of 0.

For example, if getFirstDayOfWeek() is SUNDAY and getMinimalDaysInFirstWeek() is 4, then the first week of January 1998 is Sunday, January 4 through Saturday, January 10. These days have a WEEK_OF_MONTH of 1. Thursday, January 1 through Saturday, January 3 have a WEEK_OF_MONTH of 0. If getMinimalDaysInFirstWeek() is changed to 3, then January 1 through January 3 have a WEEK_OF_MONTH of 1.

Default Fields Values

The clear method sets calendar field(s) undefined. GregorianCalendar uses the following default value for each calendar field if its value is undefined.
Field
Default Value
ERA
AD
YEAR
1970
MONTH
JANUARY
DAY_OF_MONTH
1
DAY_OF_WEEK
the first day of week
WEEK_OF_MONTH
0
DAY_OF_WEEK_IN_MONTH
1
AM_PM
AM
HOUR, HOUR_OF_DAY, MINUTE, SECOND, MILLISECOND
0

Default values are not applicable for the fields not listed above.

Example:

// get the supported ids for GMT-08:00 (Pacific Standard Time)
String[] ids = TimeZone.getAvailableIDs(-8 * 60 * 60 * 1000);
// if no ids were returned, something is wrong. get out.
if (ids.length == 0)
    System.exit(0);

 // begin output
System.out.println("Current Time");

// create a Pacific Standard Time time zone
SimpleTimeZone pdt = new SimpleTimeZone(-8 * 60 * 60 * 1000, ids[0]);

// set up rules for Daylight Saving Time
pdt.setStartRule(Calendar.APRIL, 1, Calendar.SUNDAY, 2 * 60 * 60 * 1000);
pdt.setEndRule(Calendar.OCTOBER, -1, Calendar.SUNDAY, 2 * 60 * 60 * 1000);

// create a GregorianCalendar with the Pacific Daylight time zone
// and the current date and time
Calendar calendar = new GregorianCalendar(pdt);
Date trialTime = new Date();
calendar.setTime(trialTime);

// print out a bunch of interesting things
System.out.println("ERA: " + calendar.get(Calendar.ERA));
System.out.println("YEAR: " + calendar.get(Calendar.YEAR));
System.out.println("MONTH: " + calendar.get(Calendar.MONTH));
System.out.println("WEEK_OF_YEAR: " + calendar.get(Calendar.WEEK_OF_YEAR));
System.out.println("WEEK_OF_MONTH: " + calendar.get(Calendar.WEEK_OF_MONTH));
System.out.println("DATE: " + calendar.get(Calendar.DATE));
System.out.println("DAY_OF_MONTH: " + calendar.get(Calendar.DAY_OF_MONTH));
System.out.println("DAY_OF_YEAR: " + calendar.get(Calendar.DAY_OF_YEAR));
System.out.println("DAY_OF_WEEK: " + calendar.get(Calendar.DAY_OF_WEEK));
System.out.println("DAY_OF_WEEK_IN_MONTH: "
                   + calendar.get(Calendar.DAY_OF_WEEK_IN_MONTH));
System.out.println("AM_PM: " + calendar.get(Calendar.AM_PM));
System.out.println("HOUR: " + calendar.get(Calendar.HOUR));
System.out.println("HOUR_OF_DAY: " + calendar.get(Calendar.HOUR_OF_DAY));
System.out.println("MINUTE: " + calendar.get(Calendar.MINUTE));
System.out.println("SECOND: " + calendar.get(Calendar.SECOND));
System.out.println("MILLISECOND: " + calendar.get(Calendar.MILLISECOND));
System.out.println("ZONE_OFFSET: "
                   + (calendar.get(Calendar.ZONE_OFFSET)/(60*60*1000)));
System.out.println("DST_OFFSET: "
                   + (calendar.get(Calendar.DST_OFFSET)/(60*60*1000)));

System.out.println("Current Time, with hour reset to 3");
calendar.clear(Calendar.HOUR_OF_DAY); // so doesn't override
calendar.set(Calendar.HOUR, 3);
System.out.println("ERA: " + calendar.get(Calendar.ERA));
System.out.println("YEAR: " + calendar.get(Calendar.YEAR));
System.out.println("MONTH: " + calendar.get(Calendar.MONTH));
System.out.println("WEEK_OF_YEAR: " + calendar.get(Calendar.WEEK_OF_YEAR));
System.out.println("WEEK_OF_MONTH: " + calendar.get(Calendar.WEEK_OF_MONTH));
System.out.println("DATE: " + calendar.get(Calendar.DATE));
System.out.println("DAY_OF_MONTH: " + calendar.get(Calendar.DAY_OF_MONTH));
System.out.println("DAY_OF_YEAR: " + calendar.get(Calendar.DAY_OF_YEAR));
System.out.println("DAY_OF_WEEK: " + calendar.get(Calendar.DAY_OF_WEEK));
System.out.println("DAY_OF_WEEK_IN_MONTH: "
                   + calendar.get(Calendar.DAY_OF_WEEK_IN_MONTH));
System.out.println("AM_PM: " + calendar.get(Calendar.AM_PM));
System.out.println("HOUR: " + calendar.get(Calendar.HOUR));
System.out.println("HOUR_OF_DAY: " + calendar.get(Calendar.HOUR_OF_DAY));
System.out.println("MINUTE: " + calendar.get(Calendar.MINUTE));
System.out.println("SECOND: " + calendar.get(Calendar.SECOND));
System.out.println("MILLISECOND: " + calendar.get(Calendar.MILLISECOND));
System.out.println("ZONE_OFFSET: "
       + (calendar.get(Calendar.ZONE_OFFSET)/(60*60*1000))); // in hours
System.out.println("DST_OFFSET: "
       + (calendar.get(Calendar.DST_OFFSET)/(60*60*1000))); // in hours
Field Summary
public static final  int BC    Value of the ERA field indicating the period before the common era (before Christ), also known as BCE. The sequence of years at the transition from BC to AD is ..., 2 BC, 1 BC, 1 AD, 2 AD,... 
static final  int BCE    Value of the #ERA field indicating the period before the common era, the same value as #BC .
    Also see:
    CE
 
public static final  int AD    Value of the ERA field indicating the common era (Anno Domini), also known as CE. The sequence of years at the transition from BC to AD is ..., 2 BC, 1 BC, 1 AD, 2 AD,... 
static final  int CE    Value of the #ERA field indicating the common era, the same value as #AD . 
static final  int[] MONTH_LENGTH     
static final  int[] LEAP_MONTH_LENGTH     
static final  int[] MIN_VALUES     
static final  int[] LEAST_MAX_VALUES     
static final  int[] MAX_VALUES     
static final  long serialVersionUID     
static final  long DEFAULT_GREGORIAN_CUTOVER     
Fields inherited from java.util.Calendar:
ERA,  YEAR,  MONTH,  WEEK_OF_YEAR,  WEEK_OF_MONTH,  DATE,  DAY_OF_MONTH,  DAY_OF_YEAR,  DAY_OF_WEEK,  DAY_OF_WEEK_IN_MONTH,  AM_PM,  HOUR,  HOUR_OF_DAY,  MINUTE,  SECOND,  MILLISECOND,  ZONE_OFFSET,  DST_OFFSET,  FIELD_COUNT,  SUNDAY,  MONDAY,  TUESDAY,  WEDNESDAY,  THURSDAY,  FRIDAY,  SATURDAY,  JANUARY,  FEBRUARY,  MARCH,  APRIL,  MAY,  JUNE,  JULY,  AUGUST,  SEPTEMBER,  OCTOBER,  NOVEMBER,  DECEMBER,  UNDECIMBER,  AM,  PM,  ALL_STYLES,  SHORT,  LONG,  fields,  isSet,  time,  isTimeSet,  areFieldsSet,  areAllFieldsSet,  ALL_FIELDS,  currentSerialVersion,  serialVersionUID,  ERA_MASK,  YEAR_MASK,  MONTH_MASK,  WEEK_OF_YEAR_MASK,  WEEK_OF_MONTH_MASK,  DAY_OF_MONTH_MASK,  DATE_MASK,  DAY_OF_YEAR_MASK,  DAY_OF_WEEK_MASK,  DAY_OF_WEEK_IN_MONTH_MASK,  AM_PM_MASK,  HOUR_MASK,  HOUR_OF_DAY_MASK,  MINUTE_MASK,  SECOND_MASK,  MILLISECOND_MASK,  ZONE_OFFSET_MASK,  DST_OFFSET_MASK
Constructor:
 public GregorianCalendar() 
 public GregorianCalendar(TimeZone zone) 
    Constructs a GregorianCalendar based on the current time in the given time zone with the default locale.
    Parameters:
    zone - the given time zone.
 public GregorianCalendar(Locale aLocale) 
    Constructs a GregorianCalendar based on the current time in the default time zone with the given locale.
    Parameters:
    aLocale - the given locale.
 public GregorianCalendar(TimeZone zone,
    Locale aLocale) 
    Constructs a GregorianCalendar based on the current time in the given time zone with the given locale.
    Parameters:
    zone - the given time zone.
    aLocale - the given locale.
 public GregorianCalendar(int year,
    int month,
    int dayOfMonth) 
 public GregorianCalendar(int year,
    int month,
    int dayOfMonth,
    int hourOfDay,
    int minute) 
 public GregorianCalendar(int year,
    int month,
    int dayOfMonth,
    int hourOfDay,
    int minute,
    int second) 
 GregorianCalendar(int year,
    int month,
    int dayOfMonth,
    int hourOfDay,
    int minute,
    int second,
    int millis) 
Method from java.util.GregorianCalendar Summary:
add,   clone,   computeFields,   computeTime,   equals,   getActualMaximum,   getActualMinimum,   getGreatestMinimum,   getGregorianChange,   getLeastMaximum,   getMaximum,   getMinimum,   getTimeZone,   getWeekYear,   getWeeksInWeekYear,   hashCode,   isLeapYear,   isWeekDateSupported,   roll,   roll,   setGregorianChange,   setTimeZone,   setWeekDate
Methods from java.util.Calendar:
add,   after,   before,   checkDisplayNameParams,   clear,   clear,   clone,   compareTo,   complete,   computeFields,   computeTime,   equals,   get,   getActualMaximum,   getActualMinimum,   getAvailableLocales,   getDisplayName,   getDisplayNames,   getFieldName,   getFirstDayOfWeek,   getGreatestMinimum,   getInstance,   getInstance,   getInstance,   getInstance,   getLeastMaximum,   getMaximum,   getMinimalDaysInFirstWeek,   getMinimum,   getSetStateFields,   getTime,   getTimeInMillis,   getTimeZone,   getWeekYear,   getWeeksInWeekYear,   getZone,   hashCode,   internalGet,   internalSet,   isExternallySet,   isFieldSet,   isFullyNormalized,   isLenient,   isPartiallyNormalized,   isSet,   isWeekDateSupported,   roll,   roll,   selectFields,   set,   set,   set,   set,   setFieldsComputed,   setFieldsNormalized,   setFirstDayOfWeek,   setLenient,   setMinimalDaysInFirstWeek,   setTime,   setTimeInMillis,   setTimeZone,   setUnnormalized,   setWeekDate,   setZoneShared,   toString
Methods from java.lang.Object:
clone,   equals,   finalize,   getClass,   hashCode,   notify,   notifyAll,   toString,   wait,   wait,   wait
Method from java.util.GregorianCalendar Detail:
 public  void add(int field,
    int amount) 
    Adds the specified (signed) amount of time to the given calendar field, based on the calendar's rules.

    Add rule 1. The value of field after the call minus the value of field before the call is amount, modulo any overflow that has occurred in field. Overflow occurs when a field value exceeds its range and, as a result, the next larger field is incremented or decremented and the field value is adjusted back into its range.

    Add rule 2. If a smaller field is expected to be invariant, but it is impossible for it to be equal to its prior value because of changes in its minimum or maximum after field is changed, then its value is adjusted to be as close as possible to its expected value. A smaller field represents a smaller unit of time. HOUR is a smaller field than DAY_OF_MONTH. No adjustment is made to smaller fields that are not expected to be invariant. The calendar system determines what fields are expected to be invariant.

 public Object clone() 
 protected  void computeFields() 
    Converts the time value (millisecond offset from the Epoch) to calendar field values. The time is not recomputed first; to recompute the time, then the fields, call the complete method.
 protected  void computeTime() 
    Converts calendar field values to the time value (millisecond offset from the Epoch).
 public boolean equals(Object obj) 
    Compares this GregorianCalendar to the specified Object. The result is true if and only if the argument is a GregorianCalendar object that represents the same time value (millisecond offset from the Epoch) under the same Calendar parameters and Gregorian change date as this object.
 public int getActualMaximum(int field) 
    Returns the maximum value that this calendar field could have, taking into consideration the given time value and the current values of the getFirstDayOfWeek , getMinimalDaysInFirstWeek , getGregorianChange and getTimeZone methods. For example, if the date of this instance is February 1, 2004, the actual maximum value of the DAY_OF_MONTH field is 29 because 2004 is a leap year, and if the date of this instance is February 1, 2005, it's 28.

    This method calculates the maximum value of WEEK_OF_YEAR based on the YEAR (calendar year) value, not the week year. Call #getWeeksInWeekYear() to get the maximum value of {@code WEEK_OF_YEAR} in the week year of this {@code GregorianCalendar}.

 public int getActualMinimum(int field) 
    Returns the minimum value that this calendar field could have, taking into consideration the given time value and the current values of the getFirstDayOfWeek , getMinimalDaysInFirstWeek , getGregorianChange and getTimeZone methods.

    For example, if the Gregorian change date is January 10, 1970 and the date of this GregorianCalendar is January 20, 1970, the actual minimum value of the DAY_OF_MONTH field is 10 because the previous date of January 10, 1970 is December 27, 1996 (in the Julian calendar). Therefore, December 28, 1969 to January 9, 1970 don't exist.

 public int getGreatestMinimum(int field) 
 public final Date getGregorianChange() 
    Gets the Gregorian Calendar change date. This is the point when the switch from Julian dates to Gregorian dates occurred. Default is October 15, 1582 (Gregorian). Previous to this, dates will be in the Julian calendar.
 public int getLeastMaximum(int field) 
 public int getMaximum(int field) 
 public int getMinimum(int field) 
 public TimeZone getTimeZone() 
 public int getWeekYear() 
    Returns the week year represented by this {@code GregorianCalendar}. The dates in the weeks between 1 and the maximum week number of the week year have the same week year value that may be one year before or after the YEAR (calendar year) value.

    This method calls Calendar#complete() before calculating the week year.

 public int getWeeksInWeekYear() 
    Returns the number of weeks in the week year represented by this {@code GregorianCalendar}.

    For example, if this {@code GregorianCalendar}'s date is December 31, 2008 with the ISO 8601 compatible setting, this method will return 53 for the period: December 29, 2008 to January 3, 2010 while getActualMaximum(WEEK_OF_YEAR) will return 52 for the period: December 31, 2007 to December 28, 2008.

 public int hashCode() 
    Generates the hash code for this GregorianCalendar object.
 public boolean isLeapYear(int year) 
    Determines if the given year is a leap year. Returns true if the given year is a leap year. To specify BC year numbers, 1 - year number must be given. For example, year BC 4 is specified as -3.
 public final boolean isWeekDateSupported() 
    Returns {@code true} indicating this {@code GregorianCalendar} supports week dates.
 public  void roll(int field,
    boolean up) 
    Adds or subtracts (up/down) a single unit of time on the given time field without changing larger fields.

    Example: Consider a GregorianCalendar originally set to December 31, 1999. Calling roll(Calendar.MONTH, true) sets the calendar to January 31, 1999. The YEAR field is unchanged because it is a larger field than MONTH.

 public  void roll(int field,
    int amount) 
    Adds a signed amount to the specified calendar field without changing larger fields. A negative roll amount means to subtract from field without changing larger fields. If the specified amount is 0, this method performs nothing.

    This method calls #complete() before adding the amount so that all the calendar fields are normalized. If there is any calendar field having an out-of-range value in non-lenient mode, then an IllegalArgumentException is thrown.

    Example: Consider a GregorianCalendar originally set to August 31, 1999. Calling roll(Calendar.MONTH, 8) sets the calendar to April 30, 1999. Using a GregorianCalendar, the DAY_OF_MONTH field cannot be 31 in the month April. DAY_OF_MONTH is set to the closest possible value, 30. The YEAR field maintains the value of 1999 because it is a larger field than MONTH.

    Example: Consider a GregorianCalendar originally set to Sunday June 6, 1999. Calling roll(Calendar.WEEK_OF_MONTH, -1) sets the calendar to Tuesday June 1, 1999, whereas calling add(Calendar.WEEK_OF_MONTH, -1) sets the calendar to Sunday May 30, 1999. This is because the roll rule imposes an additional constraint: The MONTH must not change when the WEEK_OF_MONTH is rolled. Taken together with add rule 1, the resultant date must be between Tuesday June 1 and Saturday June 5. According to add rule 2, the DAY_OF_WEEK, an invariant when changing the WEEK_OF_MONTH, is set to Tuesday, the closest possible value to Sunday (where Sunday is the first day of the week).

 public  void setGregorianChange(Date date) 
    Sets the GregorianCalendar change date. This is the point when the switch from Julian dates to Gregorian dates occurred. Default is October 15, 1582 (Gregorian). Previous to this, dates will be in the Julian calendar.

    To obtain a pure Julian calendar, set the change date to Date(Long.MAX_VALUE). To obtain a pure Gregorian calendar, set the change date to Date(Long.MIN_VALUE).

 public  void setTimeZone(TimeZone zone) 
 public  void setWeekDate(int weekYear,
    int weekOfYear,
    int dayOfWeek) 
    Sets this {@code GregorianCalendar} to the date given by the date specifiers - {@code weekYear}, {@code weekOfYear}, and {@code dayOfWeek}. {@code weekOfYear} follows the {@code WEEK_OF_YEAR} numbering. The {@code dayOfWeek} value must be one of the DAY_OF_WEEK values: SUNDAY to SATURDAY .

    Note that the numeric day-of-week representation differs from the ISO 8601 standard, and that the {@code weekOfYear} numbering is compatible with the standard when {@code getFirstDayOfWeek()} is {@code MONDAY} and {@code getMinimalDaysInFirstWeek()} is 4.

    Unlike the {@code set} method, all of the calendar fields and the instant of time value are calculated upon return.

    If {@code weekOfYear} is out of the valid week-of-year range in {@code weekYear}, the {@code weekYear} and {@code weekOfYear} values are adjusted in lenient mode, or an {@code IllegalArgumentException} is thrown in non-lenient mode.